In , the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro  had its first edition, printed in devices brought from England , publishing news favourable for the government of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves since it was produced by the official press service of the Portuguese crown.
The first newspaper in Peru was El Peruano , established in October and still published today, but with several name changes. During the Tang Dynasty in China — , the Kaiyuan Za Bao published the government news; it was block-printed onto paper. It is sometimes considered one of the earliest newspapers to be published. However, before he could begin his newspaper, he was deported back to Europe. He used it as a means to criticize the British rule through journalism.
The history of Middle Eastern newspapers goes back to the 19th century. Many editors were not only journalists but also writers, philosophers and politicians. With unofficial journals, these intellectuals encouraged public discourse on politics in the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Literary works of all genres were serialized and published in the press as well.
The first newspapers in the Ottoman Empire were owned by foreigners living there who wanted to make propaganda about the Western world.
One of the earliest women to sign her articles in the Arab press was the female medical practitioner Galila Tamarhan , who contributed articles to a medical magazine called " Ya'asub al-Tib " Leader in Medicine in the s. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspaper-type publications though not all of them developed in the same way; content was vastly shaped by regional and cultural preferences.
In , The Times London acquired a printing press capable of making 1, impressions per hour. This innovation made newspapers cheaper and thus available to a larger part of the population.
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In , the first inexpensive " penny press " newspaper came to the market: Lynde M. Walter's Boston Transcript. In , August Zang , an Austrian who knew Girardin in Paris, returned to Vienna to introduce the same methods with " Die Presse " which was named for and frankly copied Girardin's publication. While most newspapers are aimed at a broad spectrum of readers, usually geographically defined, some focus on groups of readers defined more by their interests than their location: for example, there are daily and weekly business newspapers e.
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More specialist still are some weekly newspapers, usually free and distributed within limited regional areas; these may serve communities as specific as certain immigrant populations, the local gay community or indie rock enthusiasts within a city or region. A daily newspaper is printed every day, sometimes with the exception of Sundays and occasionally Saturdays, and some major holidays  and often of some national holidays.
Saturday and, where they exist, Sunday editions of daily newspapers tend to be larger, include more specialized sections e. Typically, the majority of these newspapers' staff members work Monday to Friday, so the Sunday and Monday editions largely depend on content done in advance or content that is syndicated. Most daily newspapers are sold in the morning. Afternoon or evening papers, once common but now scarce, are aimed more at commuters and office workers.
In practice though this may vary according to country , a morning newspaper is available in early editions from before midnight on the night before its cover date , further editions being printed and distributed during the night. The later editions can include breaking news which was first revealed that day, after the morning edition was already printed. Previews of tomorrow's newspapers are often a feature of late night news programs, such as Newsnight in the United Kingdom.
In , the first daily newspaper appeared, Einkommende Zeitung ,  published by Timotheus Ritzsch in Leipzig , Germany. In the United Kingdom, unlike most other countries, "daily" newspapers do not publish on Sundays. In the past there were independent Sunday newspapers; nowadays the same publisher often produces a Sunday newspaper , distinct in many ways from the daily, usually with a related name; e.
In some cases a Sunday edition is an expanded version of a newspaper from the same publisher; in other cases, particularly in Britain, it may be a separate enterprise, e. Usually, it is a specially expanded edition, often several times the thickness and weight of the weekday editions and contain generally special sections not found in the weekday editions, such as Sunday comics , Sunday magazines such as The New York Times Magazine and The Sunday Times Magazine. In some countries daily newspapers are not published on Christmas Day , but weekly newspapers would change their day e.
Weekly newspapers are published once a week, and tend to be smaller than daily papers. Some newspapers are published two or three times a week and are known as semi-weekly publications. Some publications are published, for example, fortnightly or biweekly in American parlance. They have a change from normal weekly day of the week during the Christmas period depending the day of the week Christmas Day is falling on. A local newspaper serves a region such as a city, or part of a large city.
Almost every market has one or two newspapers that dominate the area.
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Large metropolitan newspapers often have large distribution networks, and can be found outside their normal area, sometimes widely, sometimes from fewer sources. Most nations have at least one newspaper that circulates throughout the whole country: a national newspaper. Some national newspapers, such as the Financial Times and The Wall Street Journal , are specialised in these examples, on financial matters. There are many national newspapers in the United Kingdom , but only a few in the United States and Canada.
In Canada, The Globe and Mail is sold throughout the country. In the United States, in addition to national newspapers as such, The New York Times is available throughout the country.
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There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized as international newspapers. Some, such as The New York Times International Edition , formerly The International Herald Tribune have always had that focus, while others are repackaged national newspapers or "international editions" of national or large metropolitan newspapers.
In some cases, articles that might not interest the wider range of readers are omitted from international editions; in others, of interest to expatriates , significant national news is retained.
As English became the international language of business and technology, many newspapers formerly published only in non-English languages have also developed English-language editions. In places as varied as Jerusalem and Mumbai , newspapers are printed for a local and international English-speaking public, and for tourists.funoutdooractivity.com/wp-content/togliere-blocco/1337-controllare-codice.php
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The advent of the Internet has also allowed non-English-language newspapers to put out a scaled-down English version to give their newspaper a global outreach. Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the national language are both published locally and imported. For example, newspapers and magazines from many countries, and locally published newspapers in many languages , are readily to be found on news-stands in central London.
In the US state of Florida , so many tourists from the French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec visit for long stays during the winter " snowbirds " that some newsstands and stores sell French-language newspapers such as Le Droit. General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis. While at least mentioning all topics, some might have good coverage of international events of importance; others might concentrate more on national or local entertainment or sports.
Specialised newspapers might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial matters. There are publications covering exclusively sports, or certain sports, horse-racing, theatre, and so on, although they may no longer be called newspapers. For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied physically to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases by mail, for example for British expatriates living in India or Hong Kong who subscribed to British newspapers.
Newspaper organizations need a large distribution system to deliver their papers to these different distributors, which typically involves delivery trucks and delivery people. In recent years, newspapers and other media have adapted to the changing technology environment by starting to offer online editions to cater to the needs of the public. In the future, the trend towards more electronic delivery of the news will continue with more emphasis on the Internet, social media and other electronic delivery methods.
However, while the method of delivery is changing, the newspaper and the industry still has a niche in the world. As of , virtually all major printed newspapers have online editions distributed over the Internet which, depending on the country may be regulated by journalism organizations such as the Press Complaints Commission in the UK. A study done by King's College London found that the towns which lost their local newspapers receded from the democratic values and experienced the loss of public faith in the authorities.
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A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online news aggregator websites like Google news. Customized newspapers allow the reader to create their individual newspaper through the selection of individual pages from multiple publications. This "Best of" approach allows revival of the print-based model and opens up a new distribution channel to increase coverage beneath the usual boundaries of distribution.
With these online newspapers, the reader can select how much of each section politics, sports, arts, etc. In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the newspaper is the publisher.